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Newsletter 06 (May/ June 2010)

Eurolinguistic Association (ELA) 1

Contents 1. In Lisbon:

“Global and Local Eurolinguistics”, ELA-Workshop at SLE-Meeting, 9-12, Sept., 2009.

2. In Rome: International Conference, “Mother Language Day”, Feb. 21, 2009.

3. In Rome: International Symposium “Dynamics of Global Communication” May 8-12, 2009.

4. In Zagreb and Croatia: “Final Report on the Tempus Project in Croatia” (2006-2009)”.

5. Goals and Statutes of Associazione Euro-linguistica Sud (A.E.S.) founded in 2004. (Handout).

6. Plurilingualism and Cultural Awareness: The Activities of Eurolinguistica-Sud

7. An Outline of the Euro-linguistics Association (ELA): Membership

APPENDIX:

The ELA Constitution and the Pushkin Manifesto a) In English

b) In Russian

(See www.elama.de/Homepage)

Eurolinguistics Newsletter

No. 6 (May/June 2010) The Eurolinguistic Circle of Mannheim (ELAMA, e. V.) on behalf of The Eurolinguistic Association (ELA)

Editorial

Dear Eurolinguists,

This sixth issue of the Newsletter contains three conference reports and one summary report on the Tempus Project “Foreign Languages in the Field of Law” in Croatia.

First, an ELA-workshop at the SLE Meeting in Lisbon was held in September 2009 when nine papers were presented under the title “Global and Local Eurolinguistics” by members of three branches of the Eurolinguistic Association (AES, ELAMA and ENSE) founded in Lille three years ago (2007). The ELA-workshop in Lisbon was one of the numerous workshops, which were attended by more than 300 participants of the SLE-Meeting. The goals and contents of the specific branches of ELA were presented and also made known to the public by distributing Eurolinguistic information material. Despite the overcrowded main sessions of the SLE, the ELA-workshop could attract a small but Europe-oriented public (see Section 1).

Fig. 1 “Torre BELÉM”, Lisbon

Second, the year 2009 also saw an international conference on “Mother Language Day” in February 2009 organized by AES at “La Sapienza”

and the Faculty of Political Science in Rome. This topic also attracted a large number of foreign guests and scholars from various international universities in Europe and overseas: e.g. Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Serbia, France, Germany etc. (see Section 2).

Third, an International Symposium on the importance of a well-organized foreign language programme in today’s multilingual and multicultural society was dealt with at a second conference in May 2009, organized by the Dept. of Languages for Public Policies of the “Sapienza”, Univ. of Rome, in cooperation with other organisation and societies in things pedagogical and didactic. A number of new concepts such as British English, Euroenglish, Globish or Europese etc. were suggested as Europe-wide terms for facilitating the learning of a medium for efficient European communication. The goal is a creation of an easier means of learning, which is free from complicated structures at the phonetic, lexical as well as phraseological levels, but which nevertheless are easily accessible to a major and ever growing international public of foreign speakers than the heavily standardized British English variety, which is not perceived as being the most accessible variety of English (see Section 3).

Fourth, aside from these conference activities in Rome in 2009, Euro-linguistics saw the fulfillment of a Tempus Project profusely financed by the European Commission for furthering “Foreign Languages in the Field of Law” between 2006 and 2009 in Croatia (see Section 4). Through an EU-grant to the Univ. of Zagreb, the Faculty of Law served as the co-ordinating centre of a common Croatian consortium consisting of three other law faculties in Rijeka, Split and Ossijek within Croatia, on the one hand, and the Universities of Antwerp, Innsbruck, Mannheim, Paris II

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(Panthéon-Assas) and London (South Bank University) and the Forensic Linguistics Institute in Llanfair Caerinion/Wales, on the other. The foremost goal of the Tempus Project was a harmonization between the Croatian legal system and EU-law in view of the Croatian accession to the EU. The heavy coordinating job was on Dr Lelija Sočanac’s shoulders whose organisational talent and Euro-linguistics knowledge of European languages and cultures were an asset for the success of the project. A well-organized and successfully planned conference held in Dubrovnik in Sept. 2008 will give further impetus to further conferences on Law and Language to be held in other European countries (Poland) and even overseas (Japan) in the near future (see the review of the 2008 Dubrovnik Conference in Newsletter 5, April 2009). A publication on “Curriculum and Multilingualism and the Law” could be completed before the end of the Tempus Project (cf. Sočanac, Goddard and Kremer (eds.) 2009), which is a considerable accomplish-ment by the editors.

Furthermore, a “Centre for Language and Law” is being planned in Zagreb to coordinate higher education and modernization between partner countries and the EU. The Centre also hosts the ELA-branch Eurolinguistics Network South-East (ENSE) which is concerned with the study and research of multilingualism, language contacts, common linguistic properties between European languages, lesser-used languages and European languages in a global context and the promotion of multilingual programmes for language learning and teaching. (PSU)

1. Global and Local Eurolinguisics

Eurolinguistic Workshop in Lisbon, 9-12 September, 2009

Laura Ferrarotti

An ELA workshop was held at the 42nd Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea (SLE) at the Faculdade de Letras of the University of Lisbon, on September 9-12, 2009.

The main title of the SLE Meeting was entitled “Global Languages, Local Languages” to which nine members of ELA (Eurolinguistic Association) presented papers. The whole SLE Meeting was divided into eight sections with at least 300 participants including speakers and public. In the ELA workshop three Eurolinguistics branches (AES, ELAMA and ENSE) were represented with nine papers.

As the chairman, Sture Ureland (University of Mannheim), pointed out in his introductory paper to the workshop on Eurolinguistics, the dichotomy of “inner and global Eurolinguistics“ was a basic notion in European linguistics, as presented also in the Pushkin Theses. The influence that many European languages have had on other languages worldwide gives rise to a crucial matter, namely the fact that Eurolinguistics does not limit itself to Europe but works also as a “linguistic innovator for languages spoken outside Europe”.

Fig. 2: The Main Building of the Universidade de Lisboa

In line with introductory Remarks, Prof. Ureland also stressed the common aspects of European languages.

Erhard Steller (University of Mannheim) could use this perspective for his presentation of a very interesting work entitled Europe as a language – the concept of Euro LSJ. The three letters L, S and J in the title namely stand for the main European linguistic families: the Romance/ Neo-Latin languages, Germanic and Slavic languages. These languages should be sufficient representation of the basic core of the European languages.

However, since it would be impossible for an individual to master all the different languages in Europe, the Euro LSJ- approach suggested by Steller assures the possibility of acquiring the main traits of European languages through LSJ so as to ensure a global vision of them and to learn their common traits. These common traits could then work as an independent language, namely Europese that could be learnt just like any other language. At the moment, Erhard Steller and his collaborators are writing an etymological dictionary of Europese.

Leiljia Sočanac (University of Zagreb) introduced the ENSE association and its activities in Croatia. The objective of ENSE, Eurolinguistics Network South East, namely a branch of ELA, is to support research on multilingualism, language contacts, minority languages, language policy and language planning and intercultural communication in the region. Dr Sočanac also presented the

research carried out by Croatian linguists that have focused on “the English Element in European Languages”, Croatian in contact with other languages and legal and linguistic aspects of multilingualism.

The aim of the next speaker, Laura Ferrarotti (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome), was to present the activities and purposes of the Rome-based Association Eurolinguistica-Sud (AES), which was founded in 2005 by a group of professors belonging to European universities (Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Romania) and, like ENSE, it is a branch of ELA. Laura Ferrarotti spoke on behalf of Professor Giuseppe G. Castorina, President of

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the AES. One of the main aims of the association is to promote research on plurilingualism, language minorities, and translation and teaching programs. One of the most recent issues was the study of phenomena like the Plain English Campaign and simplification initiatives that have been considered too drastic in their lexical choices; in an effort to prevent drastic changes to the English vocabulary, the AES has been organizing symposia and conferences in Rome and elsewhere on a yearly basis.

The afternoon session started with the presentation by Olga Voronkova Heidelberg/ Mannheim) who dealt with the distribution of the have- and be-structures as isoglosses inside and outside Europe, that is, in the Near East and northern Africa. Prof. Voronkova discussed the genetic origins of such structures and the important roles of linguistic contacts and conflicts between European and non-European languages. She also discussed the problem of the formation of the so-called points of contact (“Nahtstellen”) in the sense of Isačenko.

Fig 3: The World Map in Museu da Marinha, Lisbon

The workshop continued with the paper Typological features of Dutch language contact in Europe by Prof. Ludger Kremer (University of Antwerp). This work presented an overview the of contacts the Dutch language has had with Germany, UK, Ireland, Scandinavia, Transylvania, France and Spain, just to name a few.

Aside from the autochthonic Dutch-speaking population from the Netherlands (also in part of Germany and France), other reasons for contacts included religious, cultural and economic neighbourhood relations through colonization in Medieval and modern times and immigration. Dutch has also played an important role as a Lingua Franca in northern Europe (Sweden, Denmark, Poland and the Baltic States).

The next speaker, Roland Bauer (University of Salzburg), presented an interesting overview on the geo-linguistic and geopolitical situation of the Rheto-Romance language, namely Ladin, both in a diachronic and a synchronic perspective which describes its present-day situation. Moreover, the contribution of the Ladin Dolomite Atlas (ALD I, 1998, Salzburg) has been crucial in order to present Ladin from a qualitative and quantitative point of view and to establish the influence of the German language on the Ladin lexicon.

Martine Robbeets (University of Leuven) presented her paper on Trans-Eurasian: a linguistic continuum between Japan and Europe. After providing an overview of shared linguistic properties among languages such as Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongol and Turkic, Dr Robbeets made a historical comparison of bound verbal morphology, that is, the markers for

intraterminal participles and finite verb forms and the correlations between them. The importance of this contribution also lies in the influence that some European languages have had on Altaic languages, thus proving a continuum that goes beyond European countries.

John Stewart (University of Heidelberg), the last speaker, presented a paper on German and

Swedish influence on regional varieties of American English in the Middle West, in which, given the presence of a Swedish substrate in Midwestern American English, he discussed the influences of this sub-stratum and juxtaposed them with some similar influences on the varieties of American English spoken by large numbers of German-speaking immigrants in the ‘German Belt’, namely the American Midwest. This paper, along with others that were presented in this Eurolinguistic workshop, represented a contribution to research in Global Eurolinguistics by showing how processes of language between European languages have extended beyond the original boundaries of those languages.

2. Mother Language Day (Feb. 21, 2009).

International Conference in Roma

The Languages of Economics

The Language of Economics as Social Science from the Mother

Language to Plurilingualism and to the Languages for Specific

Purposes

Laura Ferrarotti

Faculty of Political Science, Sapienza University of Rome, the 20 to the 21 of

February 2009

On February 20 and 21, 2009, in honour of Inter-national Mother Language Day (February 21st), which is celebrated every year, an international conference was held at the University of Rome ‘Sapienza’, at the Faculty of Political Science, under the auspices of Unesco. The conference was organized in collaboration with the Department of Languages for Public Policies of the ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome, the Association Eurolinguistica-Sud (AES) and the journal Atlasorbis. This event, which started on the morning of February 20th, took place at a crucial moment for languages; in fact many native languages today are at high risk

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of extinction due to the globalization processes. These dynamics are increasingly in need of vehicular languages that can guarantee an effective communication worldwide.

However, as Professor Castorina pointed out in his talk which started off the conference, mother languages represent a privileged source of strengthening linguistic and Metalinguistic competences towards plurilingualism. Plurilingualism itself must thus be protected since it can help us to interpret and discover connections among words and expressions that we find in different languages, thus expanding our cultural interpretations and knowledge of those words. The diffusion and influence of each language will depend more and more on how it will adapt in the light of the new needs of modern society, on its capacity to extract from its vocabulary and grammar the linguistic items useful for international communication, on its capacity to preserve, develop and innovate not only its European register but also all the other levels of usage with all their connotations, shades of meaning and potential expressivity and affability. The emphasis on strategies to infer the meaning of new and unknown words from the context, thanks to a wide and deep knowledge of the vocabulary of the mother tongue and of other languages, is of primary importance, and an ideal first step for the creation of a special plurilinguistic and Eurolinguistic competence thanks to which it would be possible for most Europeans to use their own mother tongue in a way that it is understandable by others who possess a similar competence.

Many academics at ‘Sapienza’ participated in the conference and greeted the public and the other participants by underlining the cultural value of such an initiative; speakers included the Rector of ‘Sapienza’, Luigi Frati; Prof. Misiti, President of the ‘Ateneo Federato’ of Public Policies and Medical Sciences; Prof. Rossi, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science at ‘Sapienza’. Moreover, the

meeting had a decided international element also due to the participation of various figures coming from different countries, such as the ambassadors of Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Serbia and Nigeria, along with many foreign scholars.

An important aspect of the conference, on the morning of February 20th, was the presence of a large delegation of representatives from Bangladesh. One of the talks in particular was about the students’ protest in Dhaka, Bangladesh, that wanted to defend their native tongue, Bangla, against a government’s decree that imposed the use of the Urdu language banning Bangla. The history of the Bangla language was presented together with the crucial and bloody episodes of the students’ protest, which led to the creation of Martyrs’ Day that later became the International Mother Language Day. There was a documentary film on this topic, while a group of Bangladesh artists sang patriotic songs and per-formed local dances wearing their traditional costumes.

The rest of the morning continued with a session chaired by Aniello Angelo Avella (University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome). The first speaker, Gabriele Aldo Bertozzi, talked about writers and novelists and their relationship to their mother language.

Fig. 4: John Stewart, Laura Ferrarotti and Olga Voronkova at the Faculdade de Letras lecture room

Giuseppe Gaetano Castorina (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) spoke about ethnocentrism and languages in Africa, Arnaldo Sara-via, (University of Porto), gave a talk on Pessoa and the Portuguese language. Jorg Senf (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) discussed the language changes in Eastern Germany following the economic transformation that occurred in that part of Europe in the last twenty years.

The first part of the afternoon session was chaired by Rita Salvi (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome). The first speaker, Serafina Filice (University of Calabria), gave an interesting talk on the need to develop strong intercultural competences in order to favour communication in the future global economy. Alessandra Centis, who belongs to the ‘Antennae’ for multilingualism and is an Italian representative in the European Commission, presented a paper regarding the protection of language diversity in the European Union, while Marinella Rocca Longo (University of Rome 3) dealt with native languages of New Zealand. She chaired the following session which included a talk by Laura Ferrarotti (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) on Hawaiian Pidgin as a mother tongue. Arnulfo Martinez Portales (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) presented an interesting paper on the native

language of Bolivia,

Ecuador and Perù: the

Quécha language.

Viola Gjlbegaj

(University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome) spoke about the foreign words that are present in

Albanian. Aniello Angelo

Avella concluded the afternoon session with the paper describing the language of creative architect Lina Bo

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Bardi, who finds herself in constant tension between her native country and her new homeland, Brazil.

On the next day of the conference, February 21st, Linda Lombardo (Luiss Guido Carli, Roma) chaired the first session. Lazzaro Rino Caputo (University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome, Dean of the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy) talked about neologisms in the Italian language. Renato Corsetti (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) presented a work on the Esperanto language. The actress Daniela Giordano (Director of “Festad’Africa Festival Lingue e linguaggi”), guest of honour of the conference, read a moving passage by the writer Mia Couto, while Italian writer Tiziana Colusso expressed her feelings about languages. The content of her talk was very similar to that of Canadian writer Margaret Atwood whose poem, Marsh Languages, deals with the loss of the expressive and sound based languages of the prairies and marshes, which could be symbolically viewed as the languages of childhood.

Tiziana Colusso chaired the next session in which Domenico Sturino (University of Calabria) presented a paper on the benefits of humour with having diverse cultural backgrounds in a university context. The African

Fig. 5: Konstantin Krasukhin, Moscow, and Sture Ureland, Mannheim in Sintra

poet and philosopher Caius Ikegezie talked about linguistic integration in Africa underlining the importance of rhythm and communication signs. Gaultier Tsh*tenge, an African scholar, spoke about internationalization and languages.

Louis Begioni (University of Charles De Gaulle, Lille3) presented the new cognitive perspectives related to learning a new language on the basis of one’s mother tongue. Manuela Cipri (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) chaired the last session, in which young scholars presented their works: Santo Vuono (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) dealt with European influences on Albanian language, while Maria Bochicchio (University of Porto José Regio) talked about the language of poetry and the poetry of the language. Antonio Castorina (University of Rome 3) spoke about important aspects concerning specialized jargons.

The conference was a successful initiative and provided important and varied reflections to be further researched on, especially on the question concerning the mother tongue. In fact, the mother tongue plays a pivotal role in enhancing language change awareness, meta-linguistic competence and receptive skills, whose usefulness is

authoritatively voiced by

Roman Jakobson, “a

passive acquisition of

foreign languages

usually precedes

their contingent

active mastery”

(Jakobson, 1979:246). Listening,

reading, recognition and comprehension precede production. These are a driving force in the development of plurilingual competence and in the

Fig. 6: Coat of Arms for Christian Faith, the King and Fatherland in Sintra

construction of an international register, a level of usage based on the awareness of what in the mother ton-gue is local, idiomatic or idiosyncratic and what is international and shared with other languages. International intelligibility and equality of language rights are preconditions for harmonious co-existence in pluralistic communities, therefore a targeted linguistic education can play an important role in the implementation of basic human rights and in the appreciation of common linguistic and cultural values.

3.The Dynamics of Global Communication

International Symposium on British English, Euroenglish, Globish and other European

Language

Laura Ferrarotti

Faculty of Political Science, Sapienza University of Rome, May

8/ 9/12, 2009

This symposium was organized by the Department of Languages for Public Policies of the ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome. Also other institutions, such as the University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome, University of Rome 3, and the

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Association Eurolinguistica-Sud (AES) helped organize the event. The conference was sponsored by “Festa d’Africa Festival”, the journal Atlasorbis, the Asso-ciation Argos, the “Associazione per le relazioni di geopolitica e osservatorio sulla sicurezza”, the cultural Association “Letterature dal Fronte” and the Inter-national prize “Città di Cassino”.

Professor Giuseppe Gaetano Castorina (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome), who is the Director of the Depart-ment of Languages for Public Policies, began the event on the first day; he greeted the public and the speakers. Authorities from ‘La Sapienza’ also welcomed the audience; such figures included Luigi Frati, Rector of ‘Sapienza’; Domenico Misiti, President of the ‘Ateneo Federato’ of Public Policies and Medical Science; Gianluigi Rossi, Dean of the Faculty of Political Science and, Lazzaro Rino Caputo, Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Philosophy at the University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome. The main point of most of their speeches was the importance of becoming competent users of foreign languages in today’s multicultural society.

Rita Salvi (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) chaired the first session; she underlined the importance of Euroenglish which enhances communication among European institutions. For many reasons, and above all because of the composite nature of its vocabulary, its richness in synonyms and half-synonyms, English can be seen as a suitable first step of the long journey “from the language of the home to that of society at large and then to the languages of other people” that the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages considers fundamental to achieve plurilingual skills Sociologist Franco Ferrarotti (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) talked about the cohesion that exists among European languages, cultures and history; hence each language must function as a communication tool and it is necessarily influenced by the other languages. Then Maurizio Viezzi

(University of Trieste) talked about multilingualism and the need to improve translation services in the European Union. Serafina Filice (University of Calabria) presented a paper about conflict and possible resolutions in multiethnic school groups.

Lazzaro Rino Caputo (University ‘Tor Vergata’ of Rome) discussed the increasing use of Italian worldwide while questioning whether Italian was exclusively viewed as a language of culture. Laura Mariottini (University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’) presented a linguistic analysis of Spanish political speeches.

Fig. 7: Roman Ruins of Palatino Hill in Rome

The first part of the afternoon session was chaired by Stefano Arduini (University Carlo Bo Urbino) who introduced the first speaker, Robert Hogson (American Bible Society). Hogson described the features and cultural implications of sign language, which mainly relies on the so-called ‘deaf culture’. The next speaker, Laura Ferrarotti (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) talked about international printed advertising and its use of foreign languages which is seen as a sort of ‘country fetish’. Later, Antonio Castorina (University of Rome 3) illustrated the ideas of the linguist Eugen Wurster, the theorist of Euro-linguistics. He provided many examples of words which can be found in many European languages.

The following session, chaired by Sergio Adriani (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) started with a paper by Vincenzo De Luca (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) about multilingualism in the European Union as having enriching value. Next Manuela Cipri (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) and Simona Seghizzi (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) presented their research which focused on fashion, toponomastic and Eurolinguistic communication. The two speakers presented many interesting examples of fashion terms that are meaningfully connected to specific places and cities worldwide.

Arnulfo Martinez Portales (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) addressed the Spanish language’s resistance to the widespread use of English in a globalized world. Ancelita Iacovitti (Luispio, Rome) talked about problems related to the translation of specialized terms.

Then a group of students form University of Rome 3, in their first year studying English Language and Translation, performed a show, with dances and songs, based on the short story by Witi Ihimaera, “Big brother, Little sister”.

On the following day, Saturday May 9, the first session of the conference was chaired by Linda Lombardo (Luiss Guido Carli, Rome). The first speaker, Rossella Pugliese (University of Calabria), spoke about the language of the foreigner in German intercultural

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literature; she presented the work of Franco Biondi as an example of a writer who wrote ‘between’ languages, namely Germ-an and Italian.

Giuseppe G. Castorina described the Euro-linguistic approach to specialized terminology; the linguist, he argued, has to carefully analyze the morphology of words in order to find useful connections among the various European languages. In this perspective native-like accuracy becomes less important than international intelligibility. The ideal Euro citizen is a plurilingual speaker who owns the skills to communicate with native and non-native users of different European languages. In fact, within a shared linguistic, metalinguistic and cultural background, with an all-inclusive repertory of Europeanisms, it is possible to convert the rich heritage of diverse European languages from a barrier into a source of mutual understanding and enrichment, to promote the languages of all Euro-citizens and to address the question of the linguistic democracy deficit in the EU, thus mitigating the dominant position of languages such as English, French and German.

Fig. 8: View of the port of Cavtat (Dubrovnik)

Next Marinella Rocca Longo (University of Rome 3) presented many interesting examples of the language of sport, soccer in particular,

to demonstrate how the language of soccer is now a global language and, because of its colourful images, how it is also used effectively in the language of politics. The talk by Tracie Dornbush, the next speaker, presented a work about Australian English from global perspectives. She provided a wide range of examples from this specific variety of English, where, in many instances, already existing words take on completely different meanings.

Clara Abatecola and Federico Sposato (Premio Internazionale Città di Cassino) spoke about the participation of foreign students to the events organized by the cultural organization ‘Letterature dal Fronte’.

The next session was chaired by Marinella Rocca Longo. Domenico Sturino (University of Calabria) spoke about linguistic healthcare challenges in Plain English References. The next talk, by Francesca Vaccarelli (University of Teramo) and Francesca Liberati (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) addressed the International Grammar of English, underlining the fact that English is increasingly functioning as a lingua franca, and

thus its grammar use tends to become more accessible, with for instance the use of short sentences, the use of the active form and the avoidance of the double negatives and phrasal verbs.

Paola Lara Di Matteo (‘Sapienza’ University of Rome) provided a many examples of Anglicism in the Spanish language, while Viola Giylbegaj (University ‘Tor Vergata’ Rome) reconstructed the role of the media, especially that of television, in the intercultural education between Albania and Italy.

The third day of the conference was held on Tuesday May 12th, at ‘Sapienza’. The central topic was film dubbing, which in Italy has a long tradition. Each phase of the dubbing process was described in detail. Many crucial aspects were discussed, such as the translation and the adaptation of the original dialogues. In fact, a literal translation is not enough to meet the technical and artistic needs related to the dubbing of a movie.

The talk by Giuseppe G. Castorina was enlightening in this sense. He compared film dubbing to the translation of a poem; by comparing the Italian and English version of Giacomo Leopardi’s poem “L’Infinito”, Castorina argued that a translation is to be considered successful when both the communicative and expressive aspects are being conveyed. Indeed, these three days represented an enlightening and enriching event.

4. Background and Objectives of the Tempus

Project 2006-2009

Dr Lelija Sočanac University of Zagreb

“Foreign Languages in the Field of Law

1. The Tempus programme

Tempus is an acronym for Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Studies. This programme of the European Comission funds cooperation projects in the areas of curriculum development and innovation, teacher training, university management and structural reforms in

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higher education, with a special emphasis on the mobility of academic and administrative staff from higher education institutions. It supports projects between the higher education sector in the EU and its 26 partner countries to facilitate university modernisation, mutual learning between regions and understanding between cultures. The main aims of the programme include higher education modernisation in partner countries, cooperation in higher education between the EU and partner countries, as well as achieving better communication and establishing new networks between the EU and partner country universities.

2. “Foreign Languages in the Field of Law”

Foreign language and communication skills have a growing importance for members of the legal profession within the growing internationalization of law in general, and the process of harmonization between the Croatian legal system and EU law in view of Croatia’s accession to the EU, in particular.

A three-year project “Foreign Languages in the Field of Law” was initiated in 2006 to develop and update foreign language curricula at Croatian law faculties, provide specialized foreign language teacher training for law, and organize foreign language courses for lawyers within the framework of lifelong learning.

The project coordinator was the Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, the grantholder was the University of Antwerp. Croatian consortium members comprised all the Croatian law faculties (members of the universities of Zagreb, Rijeka, Split and Osijek). In addition, the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, and two ministries: the Ministry of Justice (more specifically, the Judicial Academy), and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration formed part of the consortium. The EU consortium members included the universities of Antwerp, Innsbruck, Mannheim, Paris

II (Panthéon-Assas) and London South Bank University, as well as the Forensic Linguistics Institute in Llanfair Caerinion/Wales.

3. Needs analysis

In the initial stage, needs analysis surveys were carried out among legal practitioners employed in the judiciary, public administration, business and other branches in Osijek, Rijeka, Split and Zagreb. The results showed a strong need for and interest in foreign language learning on the part of Croatian lawyers arising from the growing awareness of the importance of foreign languages on the one hand, and insufficient foreign language proficiency, on the other. English still has the leading role, but there are indications that lawyers, especially those belonging to younger generations, are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of multilingualism as well.

Fig. 9: Troubadour in Dubrovnik

3.1 Language courses for lawyers

Based on the results of the needs analysis, foreign language courses were developed and implemented at all the Croatian law faculties, offering introductory legal English courses, English courses focusing on international commercial and company law, as well as English for EU law. Courses of German, French and Italian for lawyers are offered as well. As a rule, language courses are combined with lectures in foreign

languages given by law lecturers, thus enhancing content-based language learning. In addition to language courses and lectures, workshops on EU legal database searches were organized for legal practitioners as well.

It could be said that one of the important features of the program of foreign languages for lawyers is flexibility: needs and interests of participants are always taken into consideration, and the core programs are modified accordingly by introducing new approaches, topics and materials in response to these needs. New teaching materials will continue to be developed based on corpus analyses of different types of legal texts.

3.2 Foreign language curriculum development for law students

Since foreign language skills are very important for future lawyers, foreign language curricula for law students are being updated and developed at all the Croatian law faculties to meet the needs of the labour market. Students are encouraged to take an active part in classes by writing seminar papers and giving presentations on different legal topics in a foreign language. In order to facilitate this, the best student presenters have organised several highly interactive workshops on presentation skills for their younger colleagues – the workshops have proved to be very successful. The system of student mentors has been introduced and has shown good results. A moot court focusing on a fictive case from the area of international criminal law was organised on the island of Krk in cooperation with the Department of Criminal Law.

In this context, it should also be mentioned that an international program of law courses in English has been introduced at the Faculty of Law in Zagreb to enable hosting of international students within the Erasmus program.

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Thanks to Tempus funding, a new well-equipped reference room was opened for law students, providing the most recent law literature in foreign languages and offering possibilities of law database searches. A growing book collection on language and law can be searched on-line according to different parameters on the Law Library web page. New courses and teaching materials are being continuously updated and developed.

3.3 Teacher training workshops

In order to implement foreign language courses for lawyers on a wider scale, and to have a sufficient potential of prospective language lecturers in law faculties, the training of trainers is crucially important. Therefore, a series of workshops were organized at the Law Faculty, Zagreb. The workshops were designed primarily for foreign language lecturers with an interest in legal discourse. The program was interdisciplinary, combining legal and linguistic topics.

The program consisted of nine eighteen-hour workshops distributed over the three project years. The workshops were organised around three large topics:

1. Introduction to relevant law disciplines,

2. Languages for academic purposes in the field of law, and

3. Law-related linguistic and communicative areas.

The first topic, “Introduction to relevant law disciplines”, was meant to supply prospective lecturers who are usually not very familiar with the world of law and jurisdiction, with some background knowledge necessary to understand texts and materials they are dealing with in classroom. The topic was subdivided into three workshops focusing on EU law: “Basics of EU law” (Lecturers: Eva Lechner and Andreas Muller, University of Innsbruck), “Introduction to the analysis of EU law” (Lecturers: Tamara Ćapeta, Iris Goldner and Tamara Perišin, University of Zagreb), and “Introduction to European private

law” (Marianne Micha, University of Mannheim).

The second topic, “Languages for Academic Purposes in the Field of Law”, was intended to make prospective lecturers familiar with relevant aspects of the specific sort of language and techniques they are supposed to teach: language for specific purposes. This group consisted of the following workshops: “Introduction to Language for Specific Purposes (Law)”(Lecturer: Milica Gačić, University of Zagreb) ,“Legal Translation and Terminology” (Lecturers: Susan Šarčević and Boris Pritchard, University of Rijeka, Peter Sandrini, University of Innsbruck, Jasminka Novak, Goranka Cvijanović-Vuković, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration) and “Advanced Communication Skills for Lawyers” (Diana Phillips, University of Antwerp). In this way, different theoretical and practical approaches have been brought together to give an overview of a particular field of interest.

The third topic, “Law-related Linguistic and Communicative Areas”, was meant to give prospective lecturers some information about related areas and possible research fields for their own academic activities. This section

consisted of three workshops: “Introduction to Forensic Linguistics”(Lecturer: John Olsson, Forensic Linguistics Institute, Wales), “Intercultural Communication for Lawyers” (Paul Verluyten, University of Antwerp), and “Legal and Linguistic Aspects of Multilingualism”(lecturers: Sture Ureland, Olga Voronkova, University of Mannheim, Jeroen Darquennes, University of Namur).

Foreign language teachers attending the workshops could thus get an insight into different topics at the interface between language and law. Upon successful completion of the programme, participants obtained the necessary qualifications to work as lecturers of foreign language courses for lawyers or related fields.

A special workshop, “Language Policy of the EU: Sources of Information”, was also organized within the teacher training programme, in addition to the workshop “EU Law on the Internet” (lecturer: Aleksandra Čar, University of Zagreb) which was organized for legal practitioners.

Fig. 10: View of Split with the Palace of Diocletian in the middle

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3.4 The conference “Curriculum, Language and the Law”

The conference “Curriculum, Language and the Law” was organized as one of the project activities as a means for an exchange of experience in the rapidly developing field of legal linguistics, but also with the expectation that it would help to extend contacts beyond the consortium network and open new possibilities of cooperation. The conference addressed a wide range of topics, including curriculum development and language education for law professionals, legal terminology and lexicography, legal translation and court interpreting, legal and linguistic aspects of multilingualism, language in litigation and arbitration, forensic linguistics, analysis of legal discourse, legal drafting and transparency and language issues in EU law.

The participants were linguists and lawyers from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, the Czech Repulic, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, the UK and the USA.

Within Tempus publishing activities, the conference proceedings have been published in two volumes, namely: Curriculum, Multilingualism and the Law/ed. Lelija Sočanac; Christopher Goddard; Ludger Kremer .- Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Globus, 2009, and Legal Language in Action: Translation, Terminology, Drafting and Procedural Issues/ed. Susan Šarčević .- Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Globus, 2009.

4. The Centre for Language and Law

The main objective of the Tempus project has been to establish an interdisciplinary Centre for Language and Law, in charge of curriculum development at different levels. The Centre is intended to bring together scholars with an interest in the

interface between law and language, to provide a platform for interdisciplinary interaction, to provide opportunities for collaborative and comparative initiatives in this field, and to disseminate the outcomes of related curriculum development and research activities. The Centre organizes highly professional work in the teaching of foreign languages for lawyers, and ensures continuous teacher training in foreign languages for law by organizing workshops in all related fields. It updates and develops foreign language curricula on all academic levels at Croatian law faculties, develops and implements intensive foreign language courses for legal practitioners within the framework of lifelong learning, and organizes lectures on legal topics by scholars from Croatia and abroad.

The Centre also conducts scientific research for the teaching of languages for specific purposes and other law-related linguistic fields

Furthermore the Centre serves as the host for research projects, such as, currently, “Legal and Linguistic Aspects of Multilingualism”, funded by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Croatia. The project focuses on issues such as: language policies and planning in the EU, the status of Croatian and its contacts with other languages, with an emphasis on the relationship between language and identity, linguistic rights as a category of human rights, the actual status of minority and regional language in the EU and Croatia in a comparative perspective, the status of immigrant languages, and intercultural communication.

And finally: the Centre hosts the Eurolinguistic Network South-East (ENSE), an informal network of scholars in the field of Eurolinguistics with the centre at the University of Mannheim, which is concerned with the study of multilingualism, contacts between languages and linguistic properties common to European languages, the study of European lesser-used languages in contact or conflict with major European

languages, the study of European languages in a global context and the promotion of multilingual programmes for language learning and teaching.

4 Conclusion

To conclude: with its numerous activities, the Centre for Language and Law provides the institutional basis for the future sustainability of the Tempus project. The network of institutions and universities established within Tempus and beyond will continue to cooperate in various activities of the Centre. It will be open to new participants, ideas and initiatives.

5. Goales and Statutes of Associazione

Eurolinguistica-Sud (A.E.S.) founded in 2004

(Handout)

• The purposes of the Association:

a) to promote and encourage the study of Eurolinguistics;

b) to support and coordinate scientific research in the field;

c) to increase cultural exchangeso initiate and organise relations between different centres of European studies;

d) to initiate relations with schools and training programmes of all kinds.

The Association specifically undertakes to adhere to the Pushkin propositions, and its object is primarily to promote:

a) the study of multilingualism as a subject of research and as a factor in language origins;

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b) the study of points of contact between languages and the linguistic items common to European languages which reflect such contact;

c) the study of European minority languages;

d) the study of European languages in a global context;

e) multilingual programmes for language learning.

The following are the Officers and Committees of the Association, consisting exclusively of Members:

a) the General Meeting; b) the Management Committee; c) the President (Prof. Giuseppe G.

Castorina, Università di Roma ‘La Sapienza’);

d) the Vice-president (Prof. José M. Cano, Universidad de Murcia España);

e) Secretary (Prof. Ssa Marinella Rocca Longo, Università Roma 3);

f) Public Relations and Development Officer: Manuela Cipri

g) Honorary members:

Sture Ureland - President of Elama Massimo Palumbo – European Parliament, Italy based Office Angeliki Petrits – European Commission

Anastasia Christodoulou – Pholosopher, Aristotle University, Salonicco Manuel De Oliveira – Professor Emeritus, Portuguese Language.

The Association was founded in 2004 and has 256 members. Members include professors and scholars from Italy and Europe. Schools and Institutions supporters of the Association are: The British Institute; School for Interpreters and Cultural Mediator (Varese, Cuneo, Mantova); “Pietro Giannone” School of Ischitella di Puglia National Prize for poetry in dialect; Istituto comprensivo “NandoMartellini” School, Rome; Literature Prize Giuseppe Acerbi, Castel Goffredo (Mantova); Prize for poetry in dialect at Vico del Gargano (Puglia); Literature Prize “Città di Cassino”.

Fig. 11: The Vatican Fountain

Journals and magazines supporters and collaborators of the Association: Atlasorbis; Argos Association; Tonos (Spain); Forma Fluens (literary on line journal); Rete di Dedalus.

• Research profects in favour of permanent education of translators and interpreters in Europe.

• The Association has a publishing house managed by Manuela Cipri.

• The Association organizes Masters’ Programs for translators and cultural mediators.

• Recent conferences organized in Rome (University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’):

• April 2008: “Semplicazione, Internazionalizzazione e Innovazione nella Didattica delle Lingue Europee”; September 2008: “Languages at work. An Encounter with the Professional of Languages”; February 2009: “The Languages of Economics as Social Science from the Mother Tongue to Plurilingualism and to the Languages for Specific Purposes”; May 2009: “The Dynamics of Global Communication between British English, Euroenglish, Globish and the other European Languages.

• Main research fields:

1) Plurilingualism.

a) The ideal Eurozcitizen should become plurilingual in order to communicate with native and non-native speakers of the various European languages; importance of using standard forms of international communication;

b) native-like accuracy becomes less important than international intelligibility;

c) awareness of the common elements among the various European languages: affixes, roots, word formation processes, etc;

d) creation of a European English Register and a European register for each European language;

e) within a shared linguistic, metalinguistic and cultural background, with an all-inclusive repertory of Europeanisms, it is possible to convert the rich heritage of diverse European languages from a barrier into a source of mutual understanding and enrichment.

2) Plain English Movement

a) The Plain English Movement works for the simplification of English, especially of the language of bureaucracy;

b) while some of the morphological and syntactic changes may be useful ones, others may be too extreme and could work negatively

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for the establishment of an international register;

c) Plain English tends to stigmatize those words that are widespread in Europe and that are highly represented internationally; Parlo Chiaro is the Italian equivalent of the Plain English Movement;

d) In the booklet Fight the Fog (1998) it is written that English words of classical origin must be replaced with more understandable words:

Sometimes, instead of this - you could try this:

establish − fix highlight emphasise − orient steer eliminate − cut out determine −set objective − goal, target initiating impulse − trigger negative evolution − downward spiral decisive innovation − breakthrough

e) The words on the left column are more internationally transparent than the ones on the right, which are expressive but less suited for international communication.

These and other issues are the main focus of the researches that are being carried out by Eurolinguistica-Sud in tis effort to promote plurilingualism and to fight language discrimination.

6. Plurilingualism and Cultural Awareness: The

Activities of Eurolinguistica-Sud from

2004 to 2009

(Paper presented to the ELA-Workshop in Lisbon on behalf of Professor Giuseppe G. Castorina,

and members of A.E.S.)

Good morning Professors and Colleagues.

First of all I would like to thank Prof. Sture Ureland for giving me the opportunity to participate in this Eurolinguistic conference here in Lisbon.

Today, I am here both as a member and as a representative of the Association Eurolinguistica-Sud, and as such I will give this talk on the Association on behalf of Professor Castorina, director of the ‘Dipartimento di Lingue per le Politiche Pubbliche’ of the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, who could not be here today because of previous institutional commitments in Rome.

The Association Eurolinguistica-Sud, a branch of the larger association, ELA, was founded in November 2004 by Professors from various European universities representing the Southern area of Europe. The founding of the Association occurred after a long preparatory period of study and of other connected teaching and research activities among various European scholars and contributors of Englishes who believed that as Giuseppe Castorina highlights in the editorial of Englishes (n°13, 2001): “plurilingualism can be effectively facilitated by a specific linguistic education and training in communication, rooted in the learner’s mother tongue and making the most of the ‘universals’, certainly it is the case that in most semantic areas the languages of Europe have much in common. A common linguistic background can not only help create more solidarity, mutual esteem and spirit of co-operation among speakers of different languages, but also provide the basis for an appreciation of the expressive quality, beauty and strength of all languages, quite apart from their “importance” and their diffusion. It could also be of great advantage if all languages developed an international register through which to make people acquainted with best strategies and procedures of verbal communication. A new register for special purposes, an international register that even the native speakers have to learn and practise, a kind of register open to positive transfer from other languages. Full or fuller transfer would be possible and enhanced thanks to shared knowledge among speakers of different countries of how their mother tongues, and all the

dialects or languages they know, function and grow.

Analysis of the native language and comparison with its dialects, as well as with other languages, can enhance the multilingual consciousness and consolidate the knowledge of linguistic processes that will constitute the healthy trunk on which to graft the study of the other languages. We are more multilingual and polyglot than we imagine: we know much more than we know we know. Leonard Bloomfield’s ironic statement: “if we want to compare two languages, it’s of great help to know one of them”, could be paraphrased as follows: if you want to know other languages, it is of great help to really know your own, not only to speak it but also to know how it works.

The Council of Europe’s Language Policies for a Multilingual and Multicultural Europe stresses the importance of “protecting and developing the linguistic heritage and cultural diversity of Europe as a source of mutual enrichment” to develop a harmonious approach to language teaching based on common principles, to promote awareness of the role of languages in forging European identity, to design and implement further developments of the intercultural dimension of language learning and teaching. But language democracy cannot be achieved by decree, or documents, or provisions; it can be attained with the consent and affirmative participation of the peoples concerned.

All speakers should be ready to develop both a common linguistic knowledge and an international auxiliary linguistic register that would not serve particular national interests, and they should be happy to pay any price on behalf of an effective, relatively neutral, global communicative tool, which would be additive rather than subtractive, a new linguistic intellectual and cultural resource for the benefit of humankind. Moreover, common linguistic knowledge would also mitigate the complications of multilingualism,

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would enhance mutual respect and equality of opportunities, would be a social glue for different peoples. It would, also, encourage functional, additive multilingualism which, as Neville Alexander has pregnantly shown, is incredibly becoming an indispensable economic resource in addition to its various roles and values.

Common Linguistic Knowledge would allow great flexibility and even a great degree of creativity. If all the speakers were aware of the complexity of communication, knew the various communicative procedures, had a common linguistic competence and capacity for problem solving, were aware of the importance of voice, rhythm and intonation as communicative devices, communication would certainly be easier, more effective and even more beautiful and rewarding.

As a result of increasing contact with other world partners, each language will have more and more common traits and words that should preferably be used as synonyms, not necessarily as substitutes. For each language this would be not a loss but enrichment. It would not affect the genuine characters, the deep structure of each language, would not threaten the ‘ownership of the language’. The American, Canadian or Australian varieties of English, the new Englishes, provide interesting and reassuring instances.

The need for a common world language and the desire to preserve local languages and, by extension, cultural identities, are not mutually exclusive desires. A global lingua franca would allow people who speak different native languages and cultural identities”.

Eurolinguistica-Sud main purposes are:

a) to promote and encourage the study of Eurolinguistics;

b) to support and coordinate scientific research in the field;

c) to increase cultural exchange;

d) to initiate and organise relations between different centres of European studies;

e) to initiate relations with schools and training programmes of all kinds;

f) to foster functional intercomprehension among European languages.

Fig. 12: Chaiman José Pinto de Lima and Plenary Speaker Jens Allwood at the reception desk of the SLE-Meeting

It is understood that the Association specifically adheres the Pushkin Manifesto formulated in connection with the foundation of Eurolinguistischer Arbeitskreis Mannheim and the Pushkin Symposium of Eurolinguistics, Russia, 1999, whose object is primarily to promote:

1. The study of multilingualism as a subject of research and as a factor the origins of language.

2. The study of points of contact between languages and the linguistic items common to European languages which reflect such contact.

3. The study of minority European languages.

4. The study of European languages in a global context.

5. Multilingual programmes for language learning.

This entails the promotion of cultural exchange and the collaboration

among various European cultural centres together with the study and widespread of plurilingualism. In this sense it is crucial to bear in mind the role that Eurolinguistica-Sud has had in promoting the collaboration between the universities and European Institutions dealing with language studies, and with the

European Union. Over these last few years, this has led to important initiatives that dealt with the study of language contacts among European languages and

among these same European languages and the languages in the rest of the world. Programs concerning language learning have also been organized.

Let’s consider some data: the Association (which is an officially registered association) totals 256 members, 86 of whom are supporters. Members include

a wide range of professionals who share the same interest in languages: students, scholars, school and university professors, journalists and writers. The Association works also as a publishing house and has its own journal and will soon become an Onlus.

a) There is a General Meeting (including all members)

b) the Management Committee which includes 12 people : Castorina (Italy), Cano (Spain), Arduini (Italy), Begioni (France), Carageani (Romania), Lottini (Italy), Avella (Portugal), Caputo (Italy), Cutillas (Spain), Spyridonidis (Greece), and a representative for Maltaa8 countries are represented.

c) the President (Prof. Castorina, President pro-tempore, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’)

d) the Vice-president (Prof. José Maria Cano, Murcia, Spain)

e) Secretary Prof. Marinella Rocca Longo (University of Rome 3)

f) Public Relations and Development Officer Prof. Manuela Cipri

g) Honorary members:

Renzo Foa – Editorialist

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Sture Ureland - President of Elama Massimo Palumbo – European Parliament, Italy based Office Angeliki Petrits – European Commission Anastasia Christodoulou – Pholosopher, Aristotle University, Salonicco Manuel De Oliveira – Professor Emeritus, Portuguese Language.

Fig. 13: Plenary Speaker Jens Allwood, Univ. of Göteborg, Sweden

The various schools, institutions and associations that support Eurolinguistica-Sud include:

The British Institutes; School for interpreters and cultural mediators of Varese, Cuneo and Mantova; Scuola Pietro Giannone of Ischitella; Istituto comprensivo Nando Martellini, Roma; International Prize for Literature Giuseppe Acerbi; The International Prize for poetry in dialect of Vico del Gargano (Puglia); The International Prize for dialect città di Cassino.

The Association has a publishing house managed by Manuela Cipri.

There are also a number of journals that support the Association and that collaborate with it, such as: Atlasorbis; Associazione Argos; Tonos; Forma Fluens (a literary journal); Rete di Dedalus (literature), Englishes.

Among the research projects here we can mention: a project with the

Regione Lazio on “Legality and European citizenship”; two European projects in favour of permanent education of translators and interpreters; and social initiatives in favour of Africa.

The Association organizes Masters’ Programs for translators and cultural mediators.

A student, Giulia Centasso, will soon graduate with a thesis on the Association entitled: “L’Eurolinguistica, un approccio per l’Europa multilinguistica”.

Members of Eurolinguistica-Sud were present in all the annual symposia organized by ELA and its branches: Uppsala in 2005, Berlin 2006, Lille in 2007, Murcia in 2008. Conferences and symposia were also organized by Eurolinguistica-Sud, especially in Rome, usually with 2 or 3 initiatives per year.

An important conference held in Rome (April 18-19 2008) focused on the challenges of multilingualism and multiculturalism in Europe and beyond. Speakers covered an impressive range of topics, related to the following areas of interest:

1) processes of reorganization and reciprocal influences of European and non-European languages in Europe, and the evolving role of European languages in other parts of the world;

2) innovation in school and university language teaching which helps to forge the multilingual identity at the core of the European experience;

3) translation as a tool for developing a common European identity and as a way of fostering linguistic democracy and intercultural dialogue; and

4) multilingual and multicultural aspects of media genres (TV news, advertising, and the press) in continuous evolution.

Another important meeting was, for instance, the conference “Languages at work. An encounter with the professionals of languages” (which Eurolinguistica-Sud helped organize) held on September 23rd, Day of Languages, in 2008. The importance of the conference was the active contribution of professional translators, interpreters, teachers and cultural mediators (most of whom work in the European Community). The discussions ranged from new approaches to teaching language to future interpreters, to European projects toward the so called permanent education; from the complexity of translating European laws and amendments for the European Journal into 23 languages, to the issue of learning foreign languages at the university level to the use of the new technologies in teaching, namely the use of computer program corpora.

Other more recent events were: the International Conference: The Languages of Economics. The Language of Economics as Social Science from the Mother Language to Plurilingualism and to the Languages for Specific Purposes, from the 20th to the 21st of February 2009; and the International symposium: “The Dynamics of Global Communication between British English, Euroenglish, Globish and the other European Languages”, May 8th/ 9th/12th, 2009, in Rome.

The first conference dealt with such topics as the Native language. This event took place at a crucial moment for languages; in fact many native languages today are at high risk of extinction due to the globalization processes.

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These conferences represent an ideal opportunity for the members of the Association to tackle and discuss crucial linguistic issues involving Europe and also the whole world.

1. A crucial issue is plurilingualism in a European context. In fact, what does a concept like ‘plurilingualism’ entail in Europe? Since the equality of linguistic rights is a fundamental requirement in order to guarantee a peaceful coexistence among European citizens, the ideal Euro-citizen should become plurilingual in order to communicate with native and non-native speakers of various European languages.

Plurilingualism, however, in present day society, should be considered in a new fashion. It is well known that according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages Learning and Teaching plurilingualism is not linked anymore to the myth of the native speaker as the ultimate model for a learner. Today one of the main functions of languages is that of using standard forms of international communication; thus, native and non-native speakers should be placed on same level in that the possibility of mutual understanding is considered to be more crucial than grammatical accuracy.

In order to attain a good proficiency as far as international communication is concerned, a new approach in using and conceiving one’s mother tongue must be pursued. What does this mean? It means that a native speaker of a given European language should be aware of the common elements his/her language has with other Europeans idioms: these elements could be international vocabulary, but also affixes, confixes, roots and word formation processes. This approach, or this different awareness about one’s own language, entails a shift from monolingualism to bilingualism and pluringualism in order to allow effective possibilities and degrees of both oral and written communication in various languages. In fact, as proposed in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001):

In different situations, a person can call flexibly upon different parts of this competence to achieve effective communication with a particular interlocutor. For instance, partners may switch from one language or dialect to another, exploiting the ability of each to express themselves in one language and to understand the other; or a person may call upon the knowledge of a number of languages to make sense of a text, written or even spoken, in a previously ‘unknown’ language, recognising words from a common international store in a new guise. Those with some knowledge, even slight, may use it to help those with none to communicate by mediating between individuals with no common language. (Council of Europe, 2001, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).

It thus would be useful for speakers to develop an awareness concerning one’s native tongue by drawing a distinction between local, idiosyncratic and idiomatic elements and international, common and understandable traits.

Because English has a highly mixed (Germanic and Latin) and rich vocabulary, it could be viewed as a useful tool in order to establish, at least at the initial stage, the building of an international register that could be of use for each European language. This international register should have grammatical and lexical structures with a high Index of European Diffusion (IDE) and an Index of International Transparency (IID). From this perspective, English could be seen perceived differently, and not exclusively like a lingua franca that tends to erase the other European languages, but could acquire a different role, a role that enables it to work as a link among the various European languages. In his way, international communication could be viewed as a collaborative endeavour that avails itself of common communication strategies among the various speakers who have different abilities and competences. These

communication strategies aimed at a plurilingual competence are: repetition, periphrasis, adaptations, simplifications, use of hypernyms and synonyms. However, among Europeisms and international expressions, one should also include those metaphors, metonymies and figures of speech that are common to most Europeans speakers. This could be the base for a Common European Register, which could help enhance a dynamic kind of communication among Europeans and underline common traits between distant European languages. A European English Register could fortify Europe’s language cohesion by removing linguistic barriers and, at the same time, act as an alternative to the various projects for the simplification of English, from Globish to English as a Lingua Franca for Europe (ELFE). It could be more acceptable from an international perspective since it is a register, and not a language, with coherent objectives, features and functions in line with the registers of the other European languages (Giuseppe G. Castorina, “Plain English, Euroenglish and the Fight the FOG Campaign” in GlobEng: International Conference on Global English, 14-16 Feb 2008, University of Verona, Italy). The European English Register should be on the same wavelength as the World Standard English, and it could include non native structures as long as they are shared by a large number of European languages; grammatical structures should be simplified in line with linguistic universals. As far as vocabulary is concerned it should be open to both native and non native words, especially if said words have a high degree of transparency and are common in European languages.The European English Register could include those words whose pronunciation is more similar to the way the words are spelt. Moreover, non-standard pronunciation could be accepted; in fact, the written word, more than the oral one, better underlines the connections among the various European languages. Hence, words of Latin origin such as civilization, vitamin, sterile, futile, mobile, organization, financial, and

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many others, could be pronounced just the way they are spelt. Thus, the choice of an English European register as a first step toward plurilingualism seems a viable and feasible solution, especially when considering the widespread use of English, a phenomenon that is difficult—and useless—to resist. Moreover, the establishment of a European register for each European language could meet the international communication needs of those European citizens who are unfamiliar with English or with other dominant European languages (such as French, German, and Spanish). In other words, an adequate Eurolinguistic policy should take steps in order to counterbalance the weight of English and other dominant European languages.An important instructional tool for a European register is the identification of the various eurolexical families through which one can observe phonetic and semantic changes as well as the common ones among the various European languages. For instance, an English-Italian word family could include the Indoeuropean root ‘ple’, which the two languages share for many words. In Italian, these words include for instance: pieno, plenario, plenipotenziario, pienezza, completo, pletora; the English equivalents are: full, plenary, plenipotentiary, plenitude, completeness, complete, plethora. The Germanic variant ‘fl’ with the phonetic changes, which include the spirantization of the ‘p’ sound, are present also in other European languages: fuldt (Danish), vol (Dutch), voll (German) full (Swedish), ful (Yiddish), plein (French), plé (Catalan), plin (Romanian), pelny (Polish), lleno (Spanish), làn (Scottish), llawn (Welsh), plot (Albanian). Hence, the roots ‘pel-‘, ‘ple-‘, and ‘pl’ are present in many European words that indicate concepts like plentitude and multiplicity: fill, plenti, replenish, accomplish, plural, plus, poly, replete, pleonasm, supply, but also pliocene, pleistocene, plebeian and so forth. Each of these words has a varied Index of European Diffusion. For example, the word complete (English) has a rather high index: completo (Italian, Spanish), complet (French),

komplett (German, Swedish), i plote (Albanian), komplet (Danish), compleet (Dutch), complet (Furlan), Kompletny (Polish).

The establishment of a ‘Europe of knowledge’, which has been an objective for the European Union after the Lisbon conference, calls for a general elevation of the linguistic culture and of communication. It would be important to encourage the development of an awareness that the various lexical elements of Indo-European origin are present in many European languages, besides English, and can be found in many languages in the world.

Fig.14: Lisbon Subway inscription at the Univ.Station in Lisbon

Within a shared linguistic, metalinguistic and cultural background, with an all-inclusive repertory of Europeanisms, it is possible to convert the rich heritage of diverse European languages from a barrier into a source of mutual understanding and enrichment, to promote the languages of all Eurocitizens and to address the question of the linguistic democracy deficit in the European Union, thus mitigating the dominant position of languages such as English, French and German.

2. Eurolinguistca-Sud has always studied and shown a great interest in those movements and associations that deal with the simplification of

languages for the sake of international communication and of communication in general. Some of these movements, though, may sometimes tend to be too extreme in their suggestions for changes and reforms. This is the case of the British movement Plain English, which has been active since 1979 and is greatly expanding. On the one hand, the suggestions by the Plain English Campaign may turn out to be useful ones, particularly for those changes concerning syntax and morphology especially for the creation of a register for international communication. However, in its more extreme forms it could work negatively for the establishment of this international

register for each

European language and thus for a

consequent Common

European Register. In fact, as far as lexis is

concerned The Plain

English movement

mainly stigmatizes

those very words that are widespread in Europe and that are highly represented internationally. Since it is an expanding movement, also thanks to the use of the Internet, it would be necessary to redefine its guidelines in accordance with a European and global perspective.

Parlo Chiaro, which is the Italian equivalent of Plain English, suggested the exclusion of many important international words and terms that work as a bridge towards other languages, both in normal communication as in the specialized communication. Moreover, in the Plain English movement there is a great emphasis on the distinction between popular and cultured registers; however, while in English this distinction may be explained by a number of historical and

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Newsletter 06 (May/ June 2010)

Eurolinguistic Association (ELA) 17

socioeconomic reasons (the most common words have an Anglo-Saxon origin, while the more formal ones derive mostly Neo-Latin and Old French), this divergence is not so evident in the other European languages.

A feasible solution would be to include the words with a neo-Latin origin in a special level of usage, where terms like, for instance, ameliorate and amelioration, that are typically considered by the Plain English as Gobbledygook, could be simply considered as more formal. Other instances are presented in the booklet Fight the Fog Campaign, which advocated the replacement of English words of classical origins (which are clear and easily understood by native and most non-native speakers) with British ones some of which, and in particular phrasal verbs, pose problems of receptive understanding to most non-native speakers and often create misunderstandings in communication even between Anglophone speakers. As Prof. Castorina points out, both these components constitute a distinctive feature of the variety and richness of English vocabulary, and both can be useful for international communication with various degrees of intelligibility in the UK, in Europe and other parts of the globe. These are some of the suggestions that are possible to find in Fight the Fog: “In general if you have a choice between an abstract word and a more concrete one that means the same, choose the concrete. It will make your message more direct.

Thus instead of this - you could try this:

establish − fix emphasise − highlight orient − steer eliminate − cut out determine -- set objective − goal, target employment opportunities − jobs negative evolution − downward spiral decisive innovation − breakthrough

It should be evident that most words on the left are more internationally transparent than the ones on the right most of which are beautiful and expressive but less suited for international communication. Similar considerations are true for several lists of alternatives to words of Greek and Latin origin which fortunately are still fresh and fit and on the increase on the net notwithstanding the campaigns against them” (Giuseppe G. Castorina, L’Eurolinguistica e il Plain English, in LINGUISTICA - Linguaggi specialistici, Didattica delle lingue. Studi in onore di Leo Schena, a cura di Giuliana Garzone e Rita Salvi, Roma, 2007, pp. 7-18.).

Moreover, the Plain English Movement should not limit itself to simplification; it should also work in the direction of an international version of the language. In fact, especially because of the composite nature of its vocabulary, its wealth of synonyms and half-synonyms, English can be seen as a suitable first step of the long journey “from the language of the home to that of society at large and then to the languages of other people” that the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages considers fundamental to achieve plurilingual skills.

Thus, these and other issues are the main focus of the research that are being carried out by Eurolinguistica-Sud in its effort to promote and encourage plurilingualism and to fight against language discrimination.

Thank you so much for your attention.

On ELA Membership

Membership in a local Eurolinguistics branch (AES, ELAMA, and ENSE) will automatically imply member-ship in ELA, provided the membership fee has been paid to the local organization. Such membership can easily be obtained through the purchase of a volume published in the series Eurolinguistics Studies, if it is ordered via ELAMA. As a bonus an annual issue of Euro-linguistics Newsletter plus a lower price for

volumes of Studies in Eurolinguistics are offered.

(For further information on the structure and function of Euro-linguistic Association (ELA) see Eurolinguistics Newsletter 4 (2008), Homepage: www.elama.de).

I. UP-COMING CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS 2010

1. Int. Conference in Moscow “Language and Society in Russia and other Countries”, Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Research Centre on Ethnic and language Relations, 20-26 June, 2010. Write to: [emailprotected]

2. ELA-ROUND TABLE CON-FERENCE 2010 in Moscow 21-24 June, 2010 “Inner and Global Euro-linguistics”

Organized by ELA (AES, ELAMA and ENSE) at the International Conference in Moscow.

II. PUBLICATIONS ON EURO-LINGUISTICS

1.Kusmenko, Jurij (2008): Der samische Einfluss auf die skandinavischen Sprachen. Ein Beitrag zur skandinavischen Sprach-geschichte. In: Berliner Beiträge zur Skandinavistik. Band 10. Berlin: Nord Europa Institut.

2.Ureland, P. Sture & Iain Clarkson (eds.) (2009/ 1984): Scandinavian Language Contacts. Cambridge: Univ. Press. (Reprint)

3.Studies in Eurolinguistics Vol. 7 (2010): From the Russian Rivers to the North Atlantic - Migration, Contact and Linguistic Areas ed. by P. Sture Ureland, Berlin: Logos Verlag.

4.Kristin Otto (2009): Eurodeutsch - Untersuchungen zu Europäismen und Internationalismen im deutschen Wort-schatz. In: Studies in Eurolinguistics, Vol. 6: (2009): Berlin: Logos Verlag.

5.Hinrichs, Uwe, Nobert Reiter and Siegfried Tornow (eds.)(2009): Euro-

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Newsletter 06 (May/ June 2010)

Eurolinguistic Association (ELA) 18

linguistik. Entwicklungen und Pe-spektiven. In: Eurolinguistische Arbei-ten. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

6.Hinrichs, Uwe (2010): Handbuch zur Eurolinguistik. In: Eurolinguistische Arbeiten. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (im Druck).

Impressum

Publisher ELAMA e.V.

1st Chairman: Prof. Dr. Sture Ureland 2nd Chairman: Erhard Steller Treasurer: Helmut Schaaf Secretary: John Stewart

Address: ELAMA, Phil. Fakultät, Schloss, Kaiser-Ring 14-16. Zi. 109, D-68131 Mannheim Germany

Phone: (49) 621-181-2294 or (49) 6224-10790 E:mail: [emailprotected] [emailprotected]

Home page: www.elama.de

Layout: Kai Jung and Hui Zhang

APPENDIX

I. An outline of ELA: branches and structure of Oct. 2007 in Lille 2010

In the presence of 26 members of three different branches of Eurolinguistics convening at the Université Charles de Gaulle, in Lille,1 a new umbrella association was founded whose primary aim is the cooperation between European branches to further Eurolinguistic studies and research.2 This initiative to create an international and inter-disciplinary Europe-wide associa-tion was supported and welcomed by members of the following three organizations already in existence:

1 This is an abbreviated version of my paper presented to the ELAMA workshop “Migrating words and concepts between languages in and outside Europe” held at the International Conference on “Sémantique et lexicologie des langues d’Europe: des aspects théoriques aux applications”, Université Charles-de-Gaulle-Lille 3, Oct. 22-23, 2007. 2 For a complete wording of ELA Articles 1-11 and the Pushkin Theses see the ELAMA homepage www.elama.de.

ELAMA e.V. (Eurolinguistischer Arbeitskreis Mannheim), AES (As-sociazione Eurolinguistica Sud) and ENSE (Eurolinguistic Network South East).3

Fig.1: Branches of the Eurolinguistic Association (ELA)

II. Comments on the structure of ELA and the statutesI

It was suggested that ELA be a non-profit organization under the direction of a Board of Directors, the present seat of which would be Mannheim, Germany. However, ELA will not be registered, but may become so, if the Board of Directors decide it necessary (see Articles 1-2).

Fig.2: The Structure of ELA

3 Until such a Board of Directors has been appointed, ELAMA e.V. will act on behalf of ELA (see Figs 1. and 2).

It is “a network of regional organizations” for promoting Eurolinguistics, e.g. ELAMA e.V. (Mannheim, Germany); Eurolinguistica Sud (AES) (Rome, Italy) and ENSE (Zagreb, Croatia) (Article 3:1); it is

open for membership of other regional Eurolinguistic associations and may have the loose structure of a network and be founded upon initiative of the ELA Board of Directors (for more details see Article 2:1). Furthermore, adherence to the Pushkin

Theses4 was suggested, which is primarily to promote specific aims of multilingual research: “contacts between languages and linguistic properties common to European languages which reflect such contacts”: language typology (both historically and diachronically), lesser-used languages in contact or conflict with major European or non-European languages; the study of European languages in a global context; and multilingual programmes for language learning and teaching (Article 3:3).

III.The election of the Board of Directors

4 Cf. the homepage of ELAMA for a survey of the 20 theses formulated in connection with the 2nd Eurolinguistic Symposium in Pushkin, Russia, in Sept. 11-16, 1999 (www.elama.de).

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Newsletter 06 (May/ June 2010)

Eurolinguistic Association (ELA) 19

For the election of such a Board of Directors outlined in Fig. 2, a special commission must be convoked: “They should represent as far as possible the regional Ethnolinguistic fields of studies” to be presented for approval (Article 7:1). A first step in this direction has already been taken with the constitution of Eurolinguistica Sud of April 2005 in Rome and which now has the expertise required for things concerning Eurolinguistics South (see www.eurolinguistica-sud.org). However, in Lille the questions of electing and appointing a Board of Directors and an Executive Committee consisting of President and two Vice Presidents plus a Secretary on the one hand, and a Main Editor of the Editorial Board on the other, could not be resolved there but were postponed to a later ELA meeting.

III. The financing of the ELA activities

The financing of the different subsections is not proposed here to be covered by the ordinary budget of the Eurolinguistic Association but rather be regionally supported by respective areas involved (Article 5). ELA “will not collect individual membership fees. The costs of the network’s activities that cannot be covered by conference fees, subscriptions to publications or sponsoring will be divided among the constituting organizations according to their number of personal and institutional members” (Article 5).

IV. ELA Membership

Furthermore, notice that “Personal membership is indirect and possible only via membership in a regional member organization; membership of the network shall COMPRISE ALL THOSE WHO HAVE PAID THE ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP FEE TO A REGIONAL MEMBER ORGANIZATION” (Article 4). The easiest way of aquiring ELA- membership is thus to buy a volume published in the series Studies in Eurolinguistics, which automatically entitles the byer to a 20% lower price, to membership plus an annual issue of Eurolinguistics Newsletter. The

ordering address is the following [emailprotected] or [emailprotected].

This condition of indirect membership in ELA via a local organisation will be necessary, because until we have a deep and functioning European identity, the regional thinking will prevail over the European scope. As a good example one could mention the successful founding of The Baltic Sea Programme at the University of Uppsala, the main financing of which is through national sources although the scope and cooperation is transnational. I hope this offer will be attractive and increase the interest in our publication series so that not only conferences and symposia are organized without succeeding documentation, which is often the case. (For the exact wording of the ELA Statutes see www. elama.de/ Homepage).

V. The Pushkin Manifesto

a) In English see: http:// www.elama.de/manifesto.htm

b) In Russian see: http:// www.elama.de/manifesto.htm ______________________________

ORDERING OF COPIES

With 20% reduction of the price

with ELA-membership

STUDIES IN EUROLINGUISTICS VOL.6:

Otto, Kristin (2009): Eurodeutsch. –Untersuchungen zu Europäismen und Internationalismen im Deutschen Wortschatz. Berlin: Logos Verlag. 250 SS.

STUDIES IN EUROLINGUISTICS VOL. 7:

P. Sture Ureland (2010)(ed.): From the Russian Rivers to the North Atlantic – Migration, Contact and Linguisic Areas. Berlin: Logos Verlag. 650 SS.

I: I (We) would be interested in receiving a copy of (1) and/or (2):

(1) Otto, Kristin

(2) Ureland, Sture (ed.)

II: Your name, e-mail and postal address:

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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